An Easy Way To Fix Problems With Pae Kernel Options

In this guide, we will identify some possible causes that might cause the pae kernel parameter to appear, and then I will suggest some potential fixes that you can try to fix the problem.

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    Physical Address Extension (PAE) is a feature implemented in modern x86 processors. PAE expands memory protection capabilities and allows you to use more than 4 GB of random access memory (RAM) if necessary. NOTE. All Linux machines with a kernel version slightly higher than 2.3.

    The info table structure used by x86-64 processors when running in long mode greatly expands the page table hierarchy, perhaps up to four levels, expands the virtual pinning area, and uses additional physical socket bits at all levels of each of our pages. tables, which expands the physical area of ​​the connected. It also uses the top bit of the 64-bit page table entry as “NX” and/or possibly the non-executable bit, indicating that the code cannot be extended to run from the associated page. The NX feature is also available in protected mode when these processors typically run a 32-bit operating system if the operating system supports PAE.


    What is a kernel parameter?

    Kernel options were configurable values ​​that could be adjusted regardless of how the system was running. There was still no need to reboot or recompile the kernel for the changes to take effect. You can specify kernel options with: sysctl command.

    PAE was first implemented in the Intel Pentium Pro in 1995,[3], although none of our sister chipsets typically support the extra address bits required.[4]>

    PAE is currently supported on the Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Pentium III, and Pentium 4 processors. Early Pentium M (“Banias”) family processors, introduced in 03, also support PAE; However, they don’t just report PAE support in their CPUID data.[5] It was also available on AMD processors offering AMD Athlon[6]< sup>[ 7] (although your current chipsets are 32-bit limited and support [8]) newer AMD CPU models.

    kernel parameter pae

    When AMD fixed their 64-bit extension of the x86 market architecture, AMD64, possibly x86-64, they also improved the PAE-based “long mode” swap scheme.[9] It supports 64-bit [10] virtual addresses: “24” (as of Nov 2018 [Update] have 48-bit 52-bit implementations[10]: 120[11]), physical addresses,[10]>< soup >: “24” and includes the functionality of the NX block.When initializing an x86-64 processor, the required PAE feature must be enabled before switching the processor from Legacy mode to Long mode.[9]

    Rough Sketch

    What is PAE paging?

    In computing, Physical Address Extension (PAE), often referred to as Page Address Extension, is a memory management feature similar to the x86 architecture. PAE was first introduced by Intel in the Pentium Pro and later by AMD in the Athlon processor.

    With PAE, the x86 page table transfer will increase from 32 bits to 64 bits. This leaves more room for the page address or page photo frame number field on the table page for easy access.In initial implementations, PAE was extended from 20 to 24 components beyond the page frame number field. The “byte by offset” size of the converted address is actually still 12 bits, so the total physical address size goes up from 32 bits to 36 bits (i.e. 20 + 12 to 24 + 12 to support). This increased the physical RAM theoretically addressable by the processor from 4 GB to 64 GB.

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  • For mainstream processors supported by PAE, the designed support for large physical addresses is evident from their package pinouts, with address PINs up to A35 but ending in A31.[12] Later product families use connections such as Hypertransport or QuickPath, which do not focus on memory address signals, so this connection is less obvious.

    What is PAE in CPU?

    Physical Address Extension (PAE) is a nice, robust processor feature that allows x86 processor chips to access more than 4 GB of physical memory with settings that match Windows. PAE is only obtained from 32-bit versions attached to Windows that runs on x86 systems.

    The 32-bit virtual address size is not restructured, so normal software applications still allow them to use instructions with 32-bit addresses and (in the flat memory model) are considered limited to 4 GB of virtual point. space. Operating systems that support it useUse page tables to map the standard 4 GB of virtual address space to physical memory, which can actually be up to 64 GB depending on the operating system and platform. The application is typically applied on a per-process basis, so memory is used extra even if no process can access it at the same time.

    Further work related to AMD’s development of the x86-64 architecture has extended the theoretical potential size of physical addresses to 52 bits.[10]: “24”. /up>

    Page Table Structures

    kernel parameter pae

    In protected mode with paging enabled (bit 31, PG of control register CR0 is allowed), not to mention that PAE, x86 processors have a defined two translation scheme level pages. Ensure that CR3 contains the page-aligned physical address for a single 4K page list. It is divided into 1440 4-byte page directory entries which, if valid, contain page-aligned address page tables. which are 4 KB in size. They are similar toCo-exist with 1024 four-byte page table entries at once, which, if valid, are usually natural addresses, page-aligned 4 KB pages behind physical memory (RAM).

    Enabling PAE (by setting bit 5, PAE, of the CR4 system to connect) causes major changes to this scheme. By default, the size of each page remains at 4 KB. Each entry in the table page, but in the page table becomes 64-bit (8-bit) instead of 32-bit to get extra address bits. However, the size of each table is incorrect, so the table and directory currently only contain 512 entries. Because the element allows only half of the defined entries from the original schema, an extra level of hierarchy has been added in its entirety so that CR3 now mentally points to the page pointer table, a short table containing four paging strategies.

    Entries in some page directories also have a flag in bit 7 called PS Page (for size). If the system has this bit setbut the value is 1, the World Wide Web directory entry does not display what is being dumped into a table, but one large full page of 2 MB (page size extension). X86-64

    On native processors in extended mode, the address translation scheme uses PAE but adds a fourth table, a 512-entry level 4 page-mapping table, and extends the pointer working table from the 512-entry page catalog instead of the base 4. entry. has a protected structure in it. Currently, 48 bits of virtual page entries are converted into a virtual URL storage of up to 256 TB.

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